The High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) spray process efficiently combusts oxygen and a gaseous or liquid fuel to produce high kinetic energy with controlled heat input. The coating material, that is in powder form, is introduced into and uniformly heated by the hot gas stream to a molten or semi-molten condition. High particle velocities, uniform heating and low dwell time combine to produce coatings that are very dense and tightly bonded to the substrate. Coating chemistries are more predictable and coatings have fine, homogeneous microstructures